IMPUTED COSTS refer to the cost of an asset, service, or company that is not physically recorded in any accounts but is implicit in the product.
MARKET TO BOOK VALUE is calculated by dividing the market value (MV) of a company, i.e., the total value of all its outstanding shares, by the value of its tangible assets (TA). Also known as TOBIN RATIO = MV/TA.
MONETARY UNIT ASSUMPTION assumes that values can be relevantly measured in current monetary units. It is not necessary that the currency be stable or that inflation effects be negligible. The discount rate (cost of capital) automatically takes into account expected inflationary effect on dollar or inventory values for the specific entity. This supports economic valuation and enhances comparability.
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