INCOME THEORIES try to identify the real profit of an organization. The difficulty here is that you need to define whose income you are measuring, and that limiting income measurements to things that can be given a price devalues goods and services that are difficult or impossible to price.
INDUSTRIAL ESPIONAGE or corporate espionage is espionage conducted for commercial purposes instead of national security purposes, e.g. spying on one's competitors to gain a competitive advantage.
RESIDUAL EQUITY THEORY is the theory that common stockholders are considered to be the real owners of the business, i.e., Assets - Liabilities - Preferred Stock = Common Stock.
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