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INCURRED BUT NOT REPORTED (IBNR), in insurance, losses occurring over a specified period that have not been reported to the insurer. IBNR losses are often calculated as a percentage of claims paid and claims outstanding and are reported in an insurers annual report. Reinsurers establish IBNR reserves as a part of their rating plans under a facultative reinsurance treaty, lest an overly optimistic view of treaty results lead to further under-rating on a book of business. Example: Product liability losses are seldom reported during a policy year. This "tail" of claims will upset any rating plan, unless an IBNR reserve is established and factored into the profit picture.

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STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT is a guarantee of payment. If the beneficiary does not get paid from its customer it can then demand payment from the customers Bank by forwarding the copy of the invoice that was not paid along with predetermined supporting documentation.

PERPETUITY, in finance, is an annuity payable forever.

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