INDEPENDENT AUDIT is an examination of financial statements conducted by an outside CPA (one not employed by the firm being examined) according to generally accepted auditing standards (GAAS) for the purpose of expressing an opinion as to whether the statements are a fair presentation in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).
ENDORSEMENT, dependent upon usage, can be: a. a signature that validates something, e.g. a bank cashier will not cash a check without an endorsement; b. a promotional statement, e.g. as found on the dust jackets of books; or, c. formal and explicit approval.
BUFFER is anything that stands between two other things. For example, an inventory buffer would be additional inventory over and above committed or planned inventory. The inventory buffer will act as an inventory reserve to ensure that sufficient inventory is available when and if required, i.e., the buffer inventory stands between committed inventory and out-of-stock status.
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