INDUCTIVE ACCOUNTING THEORY (scientific method) assumes accounting standards are somewhat like evolution of a species in nature --- survival of the fittest. It relies heavily upon controlled experimentation (e.g., behavioral accounting research) and statistical testing (e.g., capital markets "events" studies of the impact of accounting information on market prices and volume of transactions).
DIRECT JOURNAL PAYMENT is a payment that is recognized that is not included in the Accounts Receivable ledger, e.g. a double payment on a mortgage that has a monthly payment due and payable will cause a split-payment posting: one in the Accounts Receivable ledger for one half of the payment (principal and interest that is invoiced), with the other half of the payment being posted to the Long Term Loan ledger as a direct journal payment.
FREIGHT OUT is the handling, packaging, and shipping costs of product; normally considered a selling cost.
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