INSIDER TRADING is the trading, primarily of securities, by management or others who have special access to unpublished information. If the information is used to illegally make a profit, there may be large fines and possible jail sentences.
FUND ACCOUNTING is a method of accounting and presentation whereby assets and liabilities are grouped according to the purpose for which they are to be used. Generally used by government entities and not-for-profits.
INTEREST RATE RISK results from increases and decreases in bond prices caused by changes in interest rates. When interest rates rise, the prices of bonds fall to compensate for the higher level of income demanded by investors. Bonds that carry less than the new market rate of interest must sell for lower prices. For example, if an investor purchases a bond at par value ($1,000) with a 7% coupon and interest rates rise to the point where the same bond later yields 9%, the bond will decline in price to the point where its yield to maturity is equivalent to the yield to maturity on a 9% current coupon. In other words, the investor will earn the prevailing market rate of 9%- by buying a bond priced at par with the 9% coupon, or by buying the bond at a discount to par with a 7% coupon.
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