INTERNAL CONTROLS Definition

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INTERNAL CONTROLS include policies and procedures that (a) pertain to the maintenance of accurate and reasonably detailed records, (b) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are properly recorded and authorized, and (c) safeguard assets.

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SOCIAL COST is the cost to society as a whole from an event, action, or policy change. Includes negative externalities and does not count costs that are transfers to others, in contrast to private cost.

VENTURE CAPITAL is capital committed to an unproven venture. The initial, start-up money is referred to as "seed money" and entails the greatest risk. If the project gets off the ground it may require additional financing at additional "rounds" or the "mezzanine level" before the company is finally brought to the market and the venture capitalist can enjoy handsome rewards. Experienced investors in venture capital situations typically plan on turning away a minimum of 9 out of every 10 proposals which are brought to them, and then they expect as many failures as successes from their selected investments.

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