INTRINSIC VALUE, generally, is the value of a resource unto itself, regardless of its value to humans; often considered the ethical value of a resource, or the right of the resource to exist, e.g., in securities, it is the perceived actual value of a security, as opposed to its market price or book value.
ENCUMBERED is when an asset is owned by one party subject to the legal claims of another party. One example is a homeowner that owns a home that is subject to (encumbered by) the claims of the mortgage holder.
AUTHORITATIVE PRONOUNCEMENT is a formal declaration of opinion sanctioned by established authority.
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