INVENTORY TURNS (Period Average) measures the average efficiency of the firm in managing and selling inventories during the last period, i.e., how many inventory turns the company has per period and whether that is getting better or worse. It is imperative to compare a company's inventory turns to the industry average. A company turning their inventory much slower than the industry average might be an indication that there is excessive old inventory on hand which would tie up their cash. The faster the inventory turns, the more efficiently the company manages their assets. However, if the company is in financial trouble, on the verge of bankruptcy, a sudden increase in inventory turns might indicate they are not able to get product from their suppliers, i.e., they are not carrying the correct level of inventory and may not have the product on hand to make their sales. If looking at a quarterly statement, there probably are more or less turns than an annual statement due to seasonality, i.e., their inventory levels will be higher just before the busy season than just after the busy season. This does not mean they are managing their inventory any differently; the ratio is just skewed because of seasonality. NOTE: Comparing the two INVENTORY TURNS (Period Average and Period End) suggests the direction in which inventories are moving, thereby allowing an analysis of efficiency improvements and/or potential burgeoning inventory problems. Formula:
(Inventory (current) + Inventory (last period) / 2)
TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP (TCO) is a model developed by Gartner Group to analyze the direct and indirect costs of owning and using hardware and software. Managers of enterprise systems use various versions of TCO to lower costs while increasing the benefits of information technology deployments. The TCO includes: original cost of the computer and software, hardware and software upgrades, maintenance, technical support, and training. Most estimates place the TCO at about 3 to 4 times the actual purchase cost of the PC.
SELF-CHECKING DIGIT is where an extra digit is added to a number. The extra digit is computed from the other digits in the number. The computer program can then check input by recomputing and comparing the check digit. This is a useful control over the input of account numbers.
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