INVESTMENT GRADE, in securities, is a high credit rating indicating bonds generally considered to have the strongest possibility of paying interest and repaying principal when due. Standard & Poor's Corporation considers investment grade bonds to be those it rates from AAA through BBB. Moody's considers investment grade to be from AAA to Baa3. Below investment grade bonds also are known as high yield or junk bonds. The NAIC designates investment grade bonds with the numerical rating of "I" or "2".
KAIZEN COSTING means "improvements in small steps" (i.e., continuous improvement). It was developed in Japan by Yashuhiro Monden. Kaizen Costing is applied to product that it already under production.
ACCRUED LIABILITY are liabilities which are incurred, but for which payment is not yet made, during a given accounting period. Some examples in a manufacturing environment would be: wages, taxes, suppliers/vendors, etc.
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