JOURNAL ENTRY is the beginning of the accounting cycle. Journal entries are the logging of business transactions and their monetary value into the t-accounts of the accounting journal as either debits or credits. Journal entries are usually backed up with a piece of paper; a receipt, a bill, an invoice, or some other direct record of the transaction; making them easy to record and to maintain traceability for each transaction.
SPECIFIC IDENTIFICATION METHOD is an inventory costing method under which the actual cost of a particular item is assigned to that item; used for determining cost of goods sold.
PRINCIPAL is: a. a person who has controlling authority (e.g. the CEO or owner of a company) or is in a leading position (part owners of a legal entity) or, b. a matter or thing of primary importance, e.g. is the amount of a loan, excluding interest, or the amount you invest, excluding income.
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