JOURNAL ENTRY is the beginning of the accounting cycle. Journal entries are the logging of business transactions and their monetary value into the t-accounts of the accounting journal as either debits or credits. Journal entries are usually backed up with a piece of paper; a receipt, a bill, an invoice, or some other direct record of the transaction; making them easy to record and to maintain traceability for each transaction.
COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE exists when the firm is able to deliver the same benefits as competitors but at a lower cost (cost advantage), or deliver benefits that exceed those of competing products (differentiation advantage). Thus, a competitive advantage enables the firm to create superior value for its customers and superior profits for itself. See also SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE.
EFFECTIVE INTERNAL CONTROL is reasonable assurance that operational objectives are achieved, that published financial statements are reliably prepared, and that the entity complies with applicable laws and regulations.
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