LADDER Definition

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LADDER is a form of diversification in which investments with widely varying maturities are held within an invest­ment portfolio. Spreading investments over a range of maturities reduces interest rate risk on reinvestment by averaging out interest rate cycles. This strategy assures a continuous cash flow over time with some potential sacrifice of optimum total return.

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PROFITABILITY RATIOS are measures of performance showing how much the firm is earning compared to its sales, assets or equity.

PRICE ELASTICITY is the degree to which customers respond to price changes (calculation: % change in quantity divided by % change in price). A value greater than 1 = customers exhibit a good sensitivity to price. A value less than 1 = customers are insensitive to price. Price Elasticity is if a small change in price is accompanied by a large change in quantity demanded, the product is said to be elastic (or responsive to price changes). A product is inelastic if a large change in price is accompanied by a small amount of change in demand.

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