LETTER OF AWARENESS is a formal letter written to a lender, normally by a parent company, acknowledging its relationship with another group company and its awareness of a loan being made to that company. It is the weakest form of comfort letter. Such letters do not constitute a guarantee, but may nevertheless involve a significant moral commitment on the part of the writer.
DUALITY CONCEPT is the foundation of the universally applicable double entry book keeping system. It stems from the fact that every transaction has a double (or dual) effect on the position of a business as recorded in the accounts. For example, when an asset is bought, another asset cash (or bank) is also and simultaneously decreased OR a liability such as creditors is also and simultaneously increased. Similarly, when a sale is made the asset of stock is reduced as goods leave the business and the asset of cash is increased (or the asset of debtors is increased) as cash comes into the business (or a promise to pay is made and accepted). Every financial transaction behaves in this dual way.
EXCEPT FOR is a qualified opinion. An auditor can qualify the audit opinion for both departures from U.S. GAAP in the financial statements and restrictions on the scope of the audit. The opinion paragraph of the qualified report is worded "In our opinion, except for..."
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