LETTER OF CREDIT (LOC) is a legal document issued by a buyer's bank that upon presentation of required documents payment would be made. Usually confirmed by the sellers bank, protection is given to the seller that payment will be made if the goods are shipped correctly, and protection is given to the buyer that the goods will be shipped before payment is made.
REMITTING BANK is a bank that sends a draft to the overseas bank for collection.
NET PROFIT MARGIN (NPM Pre-Tax) incorporates all of the expenses associated with ordinary business (excluding taxes) thus is a measure of the overall operating efficiency of the firm prior to any tax considerations which may mask performance. For a business to be viable in the long term profits must be generated; making the net profit margin ratio one of the key performance indicators for any business. It is important to analyze the ratio over time. A variation in the ratio from year-to-year may be due to abnormal conditions or expenses which need to be addressed. A decline in the ratio over time may indicate a margin squeeze suggesting that productivity improvements may need to be initiated. In some cases, the costs of such improvements may lead to a further drop in the ratio or even losses before increased profitability is achieved. Formula: Net Earnings / Net Revenue
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