LIABILITY RESERVE see RESERVE.
BOND RATING is a measure of credit quality ranging from AAA to D by bond rating services such as Moody's, Standard & Poor's or Fitch's. Bonds rated BB+ or lower by Standard & Poor's or Ba1 or lower by Moody's are not investment grade.
GOVERNMENT PROVISION OF DEPOSIT INSURANCE affects banks' demands for deposits and households' (and others') supply of deposits to banks. The banking industry models deposit insurance premiums that banks pay as a fixed share of deposits. As is the case for many government subsidies, the government subsidies attributable to the under-pricing of deposit insurance are likely to be shared with depositors (and bank customers more generally) because that subsidy lowers the cost of providing that insurance. In response to the subsidy, banks raise the deposit interest rates that they pay. In doing so, banks transfer some of the government subsidy to depositors.
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