LINEAR PROGRAMMING (LP), in accounting, is the mathematical approach to optimally allocating limited resources among competing activities. It is a technique used to maximize revenue, contribution margin, and profit function; or, to minimize a cost function, subject to constraints. Linear programming consists of two ingredients: (1) objective function and (2) constraints, both of which are linear. In formulating the LP problem, the first step is to define the decision variables that one is trying to solve. The next step is to formulate the objective function and constraints in terms of these decision variables.

ORDINARY COURSE OF BUSINESS is the actions or results that would logically be expected in the regular or planned operating activities of a business as opposed to extra-ordinary transactions or activities, e.g. trade liabilities, capital asset procurement or revenue and its sources.

UNDER-APPLIED FACTORY OVERHEAD is the amount of residual factory overhead that remains once all known overhead allocations are assigned to the applicable products. See also UNABSORBED COSTS.

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