LOAN is an agreement under which an owner of assets (the lender) allows another entity (the borrower) to use the assets for a specified time period. In return, the borrower agrees to pay the lender a payment (interest) and return the assets (cash) at the end of the agreed upon time period.
AMORTIZATION EXPENSE is the allocation to expenses of the cost of an intangible asset such as goodwill, a patent, bond issue costs, etc.
VALUE ADDED VERTICAL INTEGRATION is controlling as much of the build stream, both upstream and downstream, in producing a product or service as possible while ensuring that every part of the stream provides added value. See also VALUE ADDED and VERTICAL INTEGRATION.
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