LOAN is an agreement under which an owner of assets (the lender) allows another entity (the borrower) to use the assets for a specified time period. In return, the borrower agrees to pay the lender a payment (interest) and return the assets (cash) at the end of the agreed upon time period.
ENGAGEMENT LETTER is a letter that represents the understanding about the engagement between the client and the CPA. The letter identifies the financial statements and describes the nature of procedures to be performed. It includes the objectives of the procedures, an explanation that the financial information is the responsibility of the company's management, and a description of the form of report.
ACCOUNTING THEORY tries to describe the role of accounting and is composed of four types of accounting theory: classical inductive theories, income theories, decision usefulness theories, and information economics / agency theories: a. Classical inductive theories are attempts to find the principles on which current accounting processes are based; b. Income theories try to identify the real profit of an organization; c. Decision usefulness theories attempt to describe accounting as a process of providing the relevant information to the relevant decision makers; and, d. The information economics / agency theories of accounting see accounting information as a good to be traded between rational agents each acting in their own self-interest.
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