LONG-TERM DEBT TO EQUITY expresses the relationship between long-term capital contributions of creditors as related to that contributed by owners (investors). As opposed to DEBT TO EQUITY, Long-Term Debt to Equity expresses the degree of protection provided by the owners for the long-term creditors. A company with a high long-term debt to equity is considered to be highly leveraged. But, generally, companies are considered to carry comfortable amounts of debt at ratios of 0.35 to 0.50, or $0.35 to $0.50 of debt to every $1.00 of book value (shareholders equity). These could be considered to be well-managed companies with a low debt exposure. It is best to compare the ratio with industry averages. Formula: Total Long-Term Liabilities / Stockholders Equity
SEGREGATION OF DUTIES means assigning different people the responsibilities of authorizing transactions, recording transactions, and maintaining custody of assets. Segregation of duties reduces the opportunities for one person to both perpetrate and conceal errors or fraud.
4 Cs OF CREDIT are the four primary considerations that will affect a lenders decision to approve or decline your loan application. Known as the 4 C's of credit:
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