LONG-TERM DEBT TO EQUITY Definition

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LONG-TERM DEBT TO EQUITY expresses the relationship between long-term capital contributions of creditors as related to that contributed by owners (investors). As opposed to DEBT TO EQUITY, Long-Term Debt to Equity expresses the degree of protection provided by the owners for the long-term creditors. A company with a high long-term debt to equity is considered to be highly leveraged. But, generally, companies are considered to carry comfortable amounts of debt at ratios of 0.35 to 0.50, or $0.35 to $0.50 of debt to every $1.00 of book value (shareholders equity). These could be considered to be well-managed companies with a low debt exposure. It is best to compare the ratio with industry averages. Formula: Total Long-Term Liabilities / Stockholders Equity

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YIELD is the annual return on an investment, expressed as a percentage. The yield to redemption or maturity (the same thing) combines the running yield with the "pull to redemption"; thus a bond which has a 10% coupon and exactly one year of remaining life will sell at $98.2% when interest rates are at 12.0%, that 12.0% being composed of 10.2% running yield and 1.8% pull to redemption ($100.0 - 98.2%).

DUAL DATE is when a major event comes to the auditor's attention between the report date and issuance of the report; the financial statements may include the event as an adjustment or disclosure. The auditor dual dates the audit report (as of the end of workpaper review, except footnote XX, which is dated later).

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