LONG-TERM DEBT TO EQUITY expresses the relationship between long-term capital contributions of creditors as related to that contributed by owners (investors). As opposed to DEBT TO EQUITY, Long-Term Debt to Equity expresses the degree of protection provided by the owners for the long-term creditors. A company with a high long-term debt to equity is considered to be highly leveraged. But, generally, companies are considered to carry comfortable amounts of debt at ratios of 0.35 to 0.50, or $0.35 to $0.50 of debt to every $1.00 of book value (shareholders equity). These could be considered to be well-managed companies with a low debt exposure. It is best to compare the ratio with industry averages. Formula: Total Long-Term Liabilities / Stockholders Equity
FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (The Fed) is the central bank of the United States created by Congress, consisting of a seven-member Board of Governors in Washington, D.C., 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks and depository institutions that are subject to reserve requirements. All national banks are members; state-chartered banks may elect to become members and state members are supervised by the Board of Governors and the Reserve Banks. Reserve requirements established by the Fed apply to nonmember depository institutions as well as member banks. Both classes of institutions share equal access to Federal Reserve discount borrowing privileges and Federal Reserve services.
PRO-FORMA INVOICE is a price quote. It is written as an invoice, and, in effect, says: This is the purchase price and terms we are offering.
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