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LONG-TERM DEBT TO EQUITY expresses the relationship between long-term capital contributions of creditors as related to that contributed by owners (investors). As opposed to DEBT TO EQUITY, Long-Term Debt to Equity expresses the degree of protection provided by the owners for the long-term creditors. A company with a high long-term debt to equity is considered to be highly leveraged. But, generally, companies are considered to carry comfortable amounts of debt at ratios of 0.35 to 0.50, or $0.35 to $0.50 of debt to every $1.00 of book value (shareholders equity). These could be considered to be well-managed companies with a low debt exposure. It is best to compare the ratio with industry averages. Formula: Total Long-Term Liabilities / Stockholders Equity

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STEP-UP LOAN is a type of home loan that offers varying equated monthly installments (EMIs) spread over the loans tenure, i.e. the EMI is lower in the initial years, but over time the EMI increases. One of the primary advantages of a step-up loan as compared to a normal home loan is that it increases the loan eligibility of the individual. Since this loan takes into account the future earning potential of the prospective borrower, it factors in the imminent hike in the earnings going forward and adjusts the loan eligibility amount accordingly. Step-up loans are also generally available only to salaried individuals and professionals. In other words, businessmen cannot take advantage of this type of loan. This is because the general feeling among lenders is that salaries have a tendency to rise year on year. This is not always the case with businesses, which may be doing well at a given point in time but are generally conceived to be unpredictable in nature. The determinant on whether step-up loans are better or a normal home loan depends on individual requirements. There are various products designed to meet the varying requirements of individuals. However, the truth with a step-up is that it increases the net cash outflow for the borrower. In this way, the risk to the borrower on being able to satisfy future payments due to cash flow considerations could be potentially high.

ACTIVITY BASED MANAGEMENT (ABM) converts Activity Based Costing (ABC) into a system to manage an organization. Activity Based Management not only focuses on product, service, customer, channel costing, it also emphasizes: cost drivers (root cause analysis), action plans to improve to achieve strategic objectives, and, performance measures for activities and processes.

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