MACRO ENVIRONMENT is the external factors which affect a company's planning and performance, and are beyond its control: e.g, socio-economic, government regulations, legal and technological change.
FINANCIAL RATIO is the result of dividing one financial statement item by another. Ratios help analysts interpret financial statements by focusing on specific relationships.
COST IN EXCESS OF BILLINGS, in percentage of completion method, is when the billings on uncompleted contracts are less than the income earned to date. These under-billings result in increased assets. Conversely, where billings are greater than the income earned on uncompleted contracts, a liability, billings in excess of costs, results.
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