MANAGEMENT REPRESENTATION LETTER is a letter addressed to the auditor, signed by the client's chief executive officer and chief financial officer. During an audit, management makes many representations to the auditor. Written representations from management in the letter confirm oral representations given to the auditor, document the continuing appropriateness of such representations, and reduce the possibility of misunderstanding.
BEAR is an investor who expects share prices to fall and thus likely to sell short. More generally, a pessimist about the market outlook.
CAPITALIZE, in general business, it is to supply with capital, as of a business by using a combination of capital used by investors and debt capital provided by lenders; or, to consider expenditures as capital assets rather than expenses. Specifically, it is to: a) convert a schedule of income into a principal amount, called capitalized value, by dividing by a rate of interest; b) record capital outlays as additions to asset accounts, not as expenses; c) convert a lease obligation to an asset/liability form of expression called a capital lease, i.e., to record a leased asset as an owned asset and the lease obligation as borrowed funds; or d) turn something to one's advantage economically, e.g., sell umbrellas on a rainy day.
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