MARGIN OF SAFETY, in accounting, is how much output or sales level can fall before a business starts making a loss. In investing, it is the difference between the intrinsic value of a stock, i.e. value based on stock valuation and what the company is actually worth and the price that the market sets on a stock, i.e. a stock price is a matter of the market participants opinions.
REQUIRED RATE OF RETURN see HURDLE RATE.
PROMISSORY NOTE, usually just called a note, is a NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENT wherein the maker agrees to pay a specific sum at a definite time.
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