MARGIN OF SAFETY, in accounting, is how much output or sales level can fall before a business starts making a loss. In investing, it is the difference between the intrinsic value of a stock, i.e. value based on stock valuation and what the company is actually worth and the price that the market sets on a stock, i.e. a stock price is a matter of the market participants opinions.
X-INEFFICIENCY is the failure to minimize costs or maximize returns. (Sometimes referred to as X-efficiency, but carrying the same meaning.)
WRITE-UP is the increase in value of an asset, but it is seldom used and is not allowed in GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles).
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