MARGINAL COST is a calculation showing the change in total cost as a result of a change in volume, e.g. if one more item of output increases the total cost by $25, the marginal cost is $25. It is usually useful to determine marginal cost because it can aid in determining if the rate of production should be altered.
YIELD is the annual return on an investment, expressed as a percentage. The yield to redemption or maturity (the same thing) combines the running yield with the "pull to redemption"; thus a bond which has a 10% coupon and exactly one year of remaining life will sell at $98.2% when interest rates are at 12.0%, that 12.0% being composed of 10.2% running yield and 1.8% pull to redemption ($100.0 - 98.2%).
ASSERTION is when management asserts financial statements are correct with regard to existence or occurrence of assets, liabilities or transactions, completeness of information in the financial statements, rights and obligations at a point in time, appropriate valuation or allocation, presentation, and disclosure.
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