MARK-TO-MARKET (MTM) is the recording of the price or value of a security, portfolio, or account on a daily basis, to calculate profits and losses or to confirm that margin requirements are being met. This is done most often in futures accounts to make sure that margin requirements are being met. If the current market value causes the margin account to fall below its required level, the trader will be faced with a margin call. Mutual funds are marked to market on a daily basis at the market close so that investors have an idea of the funds NAV.
FAIR VALUE, under GAAP, is the amount at which an asset could be bought or sold in a current transaction between willing parties, other than in liquidation. On the other side of the balance sheet, the fair value of a liability is the amount at which that liability could be incurred or settled in a current transaction between willing parties, other than in liquidation.
COST DRIVER is any activity or series of activities that takes place within an organization and causes costs to be incurred. Cost drivers are used in a system of activity-based costing to charge costs to products or services. Cost drivers are applied to cost pools, which relate to common activities. Cost drivers are not restricted to departments or sections, as more than one activity may be identified within a department.
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