MODEL A Z-SCORE (For Private Manufacturer) Model A is appropriated for a private manufacturing firm. Model A should not be applied to other companies. A Z-Score of 2.90 or above indicates that bankruptcy in not likely, buyt a Z-Score of 1.23 or below is a strong indicator that bankruptcy is likely. Probabilities of bankruptcy within the above ranges are 95% for one year and 70% within two years. Obviously a higher Z-Score is desirable.
BROKER-DEALER is any person or institution, other than a bank, engaged in the business of buying or selling securities on its own behalf or for others.
DEBT REFINANCING involves raising new money to repay existing debt. It is often done and should not be confused with debt restructuring, a more fundamental process in which a borrower changes the structure of its debts (this usually happens when a borrower is unable to meet it's obligations; this may involve a reorganization of its liabilities, for instance by converting debt into equity. Debt rescheduling refers to a delay in the repayment of a debt, usually applying to both interest and principal payments, and can involve a renegotiation of the terms of the debt.
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