NASDAQ Definition

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NASDAQ is a computerized system established by the NASD to facilitate trading by providing broker/dealers with current bid and ask price quotes on over-the-counter stocks and some listed stocks. Unlike the Amex and the NYSE, the NASDAQ (once an acronym for the National Association of securities Dealers Automated Quotation system) does not have a physical trading floor that brings together buyers and sellers. Instead, all trading on the NASDAQ exchange is done over a network of computers and telephones. Also, the NASDAQ does not employ market specialists to buy unfilled orders like the NYSE does. The NASDAQ began when brokers started informally trading via telephone; the network was later formalized and linked by computer in the early 1970s. In 1998 the parent company of the NASDAQ purchased the Amex, although the two continue to operate separately. Orders for stock are sent out electronically on the NASDAQ, where market makers list their buy and sell prices. Once a price is agreed upon, the transaction is executed electronically.

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INVESTMENT GRADE, in securities, is a high credit rating indicating bonds generally considered to have the strongest possi­bility of paying interest and repaying principal when due. Standard & Poor's Corporation considers invest­ment grade bonds to be those it rates from AAA through BBB. Moody's considers investment grade to be from AAA to Baa3. Below investment grade bonds also are known as high yield or junk bonds. The NAIC designates investment grade bonds with the numerical rating of "I" or "2".

DISCOUNT FOR THE LACK OF CONTROL is an amount or percentage deducted from the pro rata share of value of one hundred percent (100%) of an equity interest in a business to reflect the absence of some or all of the powers of control.

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