NATURAL CLASSIFICATION of costs focuses on the nature of the cost item. In this classification structure, the total operating costs of an activity can be classified into manufacturing costs and commercial costs. Manufacturing costs include all direct materials and direct labor, as well as, factory overhead. Such factory overhead costs include indirect materials (such as factory supplies & lubricants), indirect labor (such as supervision and inspection) and other indirect costs (such as rent, insurance, and utilities). Commercial expenses include marketing expenses (such as advertising, printing, and sales salaries) and administrative (general and administrative (G&A)) expenses (such as administrative office salaries, rent, and legal expenses).
RECOURSE NOTE is a note where the default may result in loss of collateral and also personal suit and judgment. Most notes are recourse notes.
PRODUCTIVITY RATIO is the ratio of outputs to inputs. The closer the ratio is to 1.0, the higher the productivity; the closer the ratio is to 0.0, the lower the productivity. Productivity is important because it relates to an organizations ability to compete, and to the overall wealth and standard of living of a nation. Productivity is affected by work methods, capital, quality, technology, and management.
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