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NATURAL CLASSIFICATION of costs focuses on the nature of the cost item. In this classification structure, the total operating costs of an activity can be classified into manufacturing costs and commercial costs. Manufacturing costs include all direct materials and direct labor, as well as, factory overhead. Such factory overhead costs include indirect materials (such as factory supplies & lubricants), indirect labor (such as supervision and inspection) and other indirect costs (such as rent, insurance, and utilities). Commercial expenses include marketing expenses (such as advertising, printing, and sales salaries) and administrative (general and administrative (G&A)) expenses (such as administrative office salaries, rent, and legal expenses).

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ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT (ERM) identifies risks and opportunities, assesses them for likelihood and magnitude, determines responses strategy, and monitors progress. ERM integrates strategic planning, operations management, and internal control. Monitoring ERM is part of internal control activities.

IMMUNIZED PORTFOLIO is a portfolio structured such that the duration equals the duration of the investor's liabilities. The assets in the portfolio are structured to match the volatility of the investor's liabilities, thereby significantly reducing exposure to interest rate risk.

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