NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) is a method used in evaluating investments, whereby the net present value of all cash outflows (such as the cost of the investment) and cash inflows (returns) is calculated using a given discount rate, usually REQUIRED RATE OF RETURN. An investment is acceptable if the NPV is positive. In capital budgeting, the discount rate used is called the HURDLE RATE and is usually equal to the INCREMENTAL COST OF CAPITAL.
EARNINGS PER SHARE (EPS) is either: a. Basic EPS is earnings before extraordinary gains and losses, less preferred-share dividends, divided by all common shares outstanding at the most recent fiscal year end. Net income, or earnings, refers to the companys after-tax profits before extraordinary gains or extraordinary losses for the most recent annual period; or, b. Diluted EPS is where the number of shares used in the calculation is increased to account for outstanding dilution such as options, warrants, in-the-money convertibles, etc. EPS, within a firm that has a sustainable competitive advantage, Should show a minimum of 5-years of their EPS trending strongly upward with consistency and without being erratic.
EFFORT-EXPENDED METHOD measures the percentage of labor hours incurred to date as compared to estimated total labor hours for each contract.
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