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NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) is a method used in evaluating investments, whereby the net present value of all cash outflows (such as the cost of the investment) and cash inflows (returns) is calculated using a given discount rate, usually REQUIRED RATE OF RETURN. An investment is acceptable if the NPV is positive. In capital budgeting, the discount rate used is called the HURDLE RATE and is usually equal to the INCREMENTAL COST OF CAPITAL.

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DEVOLVED BUDGETING follows from devolving managerial responsibility, and assumes that those who are closest to the point of delivery of product/service and other activities will normally be in the best position to make informed choices between alternative courses of action. For devolved budgeting to be fully effective, the budget holder should maintain proper control of the costs being charged to him or her and be accountable for performance against budget. The budget structures are being scrutinized continuously, the aim being to establish what further scope exists for useful devolution of authority and responsibility

COMMON LAW is an unwritten body of law based on general custom in England; it is used to some extent in the United States.

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