NET PROFIT MARGIN (NPM After Tax) measures profitability as a percentage of revenues after consideration of all revenue and expense, including interest expenses, non-operating items, and income taxes. For a business to be viable in the long term profits must be generated; making the net profit margin ratio one of the key performance indicators for any business. It is important to analyze the ratio over time. A variation in the ratio from year-to-year may be due to abnormal conditions or expenses which need to be addressed. A decline in the ratio over time may indicate a margin squeeze suggesting that productivity improvements may need to be initiated. In some cases, the costs of such improvements may lead to a further drop in the ratio or even losses before increased profitability is achieved. Generally, if the NPM history is >20% annually, it is an indicator that the firm enjoys a sustainable competitive advantage. If the average NPM is <10%, it usually indicates that the firm is in a highly competitive business. Formula: Net Profit After Tax (EAT + DII + OI) / Net Revenue
INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING is the international aspects of accounting, including such matters as accounting principles and reporting practices in different countries and their classification; patterns of accounting development; international and regional harmonization, foreign currency translation; foreign exchange risk; international comparisons of consolidation accounting and inflation accounting; accounting in developing countries; accounting in communist countries; performance evaluation of foreign subsidiaries.
FEEDBACK is the process in which part of the output of a system is returned to its input in order to regulate its further output, e.g. a management feedback system would assess the effectiveness of management or a given process and feed the analyzed results back into management for development of positive change.
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