NET PROFIT MARGIN (NPM Pre-Tax) incorporates all of the expenses associated with ordinary business (excluding taxes) thus is a measure of the overall operating efficiency of the firm prior to any tax considerations which may mask performance. For a business to be viable in the long term profits must be generated; making the net profit margin ratio one of the key performance indicators for any business. It is important to analyze the ratio over time. A variation in the ratio from year-to-year may be due to abnormal conditions or expenses which need to be addressed. A decline in the ratio over time may indicate a margin squeeze suggesting that productivity improvements may need to be initiated. In some cases, the costs of such improvements may lead to a further drop in the ratio or even losses before increased profitability is achieved. Formula: Net Earnings / Net Revenue
RETURN ON ASSETS (ROA) shows the after tax earnings of assets. Return on assets is an indicator of how profitable a company is. Use this ratio annually to compare a business performance to the industry norms: The higher the ratio the greater the return on assets. However this has to be balanced against such factors as risk, sustainability and reinvestment in the business through development costs.
Higher ROA is better, but extremely high ROA may be an indicator of vulnerability as to any sustainable competitive advantage.
Formula: Earnings After Tax (EAITDA) / Total Assets
BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING (BPR) is the analysis and radical redesign of business processes using objective, quantitative methods and tools and management systems to accomplish change or performance improvement. Also called: Re-Engineering, Reengineering, Process Reengineering, Process Quality Management, BPR, Process Innovation, Process Improvement, and Business Process Engineering.
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