NET PROFIT MARGIN (NPM Pre-Tax) incorporates all of the expenses associated with ordinary business (excluding taxes) thus is a measure of the overall operating efficiency of the firm prior to any tax considerations which may mask performance. For a business to be viable in the long term profits must be generated; making the net profit margin ratio one of the key performance indicators for any business. It is important to analyze the ratio over time. A variation in the ratio from year-to-year may be due to abnormal conditions or expenses which need to be addressed. A decline in the ratio over time may indicate a margin squeeze suggesting that productivity improvements may need to be initiated. In some cases, the costs of such improvements may lead to a further drop in the ratio or even losses before increased profitability is achieved. Formula: Net Earnings / Net Revenue
TANGIBLE normally refers to assets that can be held or seen and that are capable of being appraised at an actual or approximate value (e.g. inventory, land & buildings, etc.).
SPECIFIC IDENTIFICATON INVENTORY VALUATION is a method of valuing and tracking inventory where each item can be identified. Specific identification is most often used for large, easily traceable items, such as furniture or vehicles. If tracking each individual inventory item is not practical, the inventory can be valued using other accepted methods, such as the first-in, first-out method (FIFO) or the last-in, first-out method (LIFO).
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