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NON-CONTROLLING INTEREST is an equity ownership stake in a corporation where the held position gives the investor no influence on how the company is run. The majority of investor positions are deemed to be a non-controlling interest because their ownership stake is so insignificant relative to the total number of outstanding shares. For smaller companies, any position that holds less than 50% of the outstanding voting shares is deemed to be a non-controlling interest.

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SEMIVARIALBLE COST is one that varies with changes in volume, but, unlike variable cost, does not vary in direct proportion. This component contains both fixed and variable elements, e.g., a rented vehicle may have a rental fee (fixed), but contain a mileage adder (variable).

POSITIVE ACCOUNTING THEORY is where theorists tend to explain why some accounting practices are more popular than others (e.g., because they increase management compensation). They tend to support their conclusions with inductive theory and empirical evidence as opposed to deductive methods. Generally avoid advocacy of one accounting rule as being better or worse than its alternatives. Positivists are inspired by anecdotal evidence, but anecdotal evidence is never permitted without more rigorous and controlled scientific investigation.

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