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INFORMATION / INFORMATIONAL RETURN is one of many returns that only communicates to the Internal Revenue Service information relevant to tax liability and does not compute the actual liability of any taxpayer or accompany the actual payment of tax; used for sale of property, dividends, and others (e.g., W-2 and Forms 1099).

NORMATIVE ACCOUNTING THEORY is where theorists tend to advocate their opinions on accounting based upon subjective opinion, deductive logic, and inductive methods. In the final analysis, nearly all standards are based upon normative theory. Generally conclude that some accounting rule is better or worse than its alternatives. Normative theorists tend to rely heavily upon anecdotal evidence (e.g., examples of fraud) that generally fails to meet tests of academic rigor. For example, the Wizard reported that Montgomery Ward would fail. However, the Wizard always reports that every company will fail or lose its self identity in a pattern of acquisitions and mergers. Eventually, he will always be correct.

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