NON-PERFORMING ASSET is an asset not effectual in the production of income. For example, in banking, commercial loans 90 days past due and consumer loans 180 days past due are classified as non-performing.
COST ASSIGNMENT involves assigning costs of an account to the accounts that are responsible or accountable for incurring the cost. For example, the cost of issuing purchase orders is allocated to the various objects procured. The cost assignment is done through assignment paths and cost drivers. The assignment path identifies the source account (the account whose cost is being assigned "Issue Purchase Orders" in the above example) and destination accounts (the accounts to which the costs are being allocated the various cost objects procured by issuing purchase orders in the above example). The cost driver identifies the measure or rationale on the basis of which the assignment needs to be done, that is, whether the costs of issuing purchase orders need to be assigned to various cost objects evenly, based on some defined percentage values, or based on some criterion, like the number of purchase orders of each cost object issued. Defining the cost drivers and assignment paths (i.e., source and destination accounts) enable proper assignment and accounting of the various costs incurred in the organization.
ENGAGEMENT LETTER is a letter that represents the understanding about the engagement between the client and the CPA. The letter identifies the financial statements and describes the nature of procedures to be performed. It includes the objectives of the procedures, an explanation that the financial information is the responsibility of the company's management, and a description of the form of report.
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