NORMAL LOSS takes into account the nature of many process operations is such that the output volume is frequently less than the input volume. Because process operations are repetitive, the level of 'losses' of materials/product that could reasonably be expected under efficient operating conditions may be established. This is referred to as a 'normal' loss; one that is an inevitable consequence of the process operation under efficient operation conditions and is thus considered unavoidable. Losses greater (ABNORMAL LOSS) or less (ABNORMAL GAIN) than normal are referred to as 'abnormal' and result from reduced or greater efficiency.
SALES MULTIPLE is the most widely used valuation benchmark used in the valuation of a business. The information needed are annual sales and an industry multiplier, which is usually a range of .25 to 1 or higher. The industry multiplier can be found in various financial publications, as well as analyzing sales of comparable businesses. This method is easy to understand and use. The sales multiple is often used as the valuation benchmark.
FULL COST RECOVERY is adjusting fees/prices for goods/services to where all cost of operations and maintenance are covered for supplying the given goods or services.
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