NORMAL LOSS takes into account the nature of many process operations is such that the output volume is frequently less than the input volume. Because process operations are repetitive, the level of 'losses' of materials/product that could reasonably be expected under efficient operating conditions may be established. This is referred to as a 'normal' loss; one that is an inevitable consequence of the process operation under efficient operation conditions and is thus considered unavoidable. Losses greater (ABNORMAL LOSS) or less (ABNORMAL GAIN) than normal are referred to as 'abnormal' and result from reduced or greater efficiency.
COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT SCHEME, globally, is any arrangement for pooling several investors funds so that the pooled fund can obtain economies of scale and a spread of investments beyond the reach of individual investors. It is usually called an investment company in the U.S.A.
COUPON is: 1) The annual interest rate on a fixed income security, set at the time it was issued, at which that instrument will accrue and pay interest. 2) Small pieces of paper attached to nonregistered interest-bearing instruments that reflect the semiannual amounts of interest to be paid. These coupons are cut out and tendered on the appropriate coupon dates, and the interest is then paid.
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