NORMAL LOSS takes into account the nature of many process operations is such that the output volume is frequently less than the input volume. Because process operations are repetitive, the level of 'losses' of materials/product that could reasonably be expected under efficient operating conditions may be established. This is referred to as a 'normal' loss; one that is an inevitable consequence of the process operation under efficient operation conditions and is thus considered unavoidable. Losses greater (ABNORMAL LOSS) or less (ABNORMAL GAIN) than normal are referred to as 'abnormal' and result from reduced or greater efficiency.
DEDUCTION is the act of deducting; subtraction. It is an amount that is or may be deducted, e.g. tax deductions.
DOWNSTREAM / UPSTREAM SALES see UPSTREAM / DOWNSTREAM SALES.
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