OFF-BALANCE SHEET LIABIILITY is an item not reported within the body of a financial statement as a liability that may require future payment or services, e.g., litigation, renegotiated claims within a government contract, and guarantees of future performance.
ACCOUNTING CYCLE is the sequence of steps in preparing the financial statements for a given period. It refers to the fact that because financial reports are given each period (usually a year) there are a set of steps (cycle) taken each period that result in the reports and preparation for the next period or cycle. The term cycle is used because every period there is a start and an end. The cycle usually starts with the budget, goes through the journal entries, adjusting entries, posting to the accounts, financial reports, and closings.
CONTRIBUTION/SALES RATIO (C/S RATIO) is a tool used in profit management. It is important to establish the C/S RATIO: C/S ratio = (Sales revenue - Variable cost of sales)/Sales revenue x 100. If a company achieves a high average marginal profit ratio of say, 40%, it does not mean that it will achieve high profits. The eventual profit will be dependent on the level of fixed costs within the organization.
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