OPERATING EXPENSE TO SALES reports the operating expenses as a percent of Net Revenues. This then is a measure of the total overhead employed in the firm per Net Sales Revenue Dollar; thereby giving an indication of the efficiency of the cost structure of the company. It gives an indication of the ability of a business to convert income into profit. Generally, businesses with low ratios will generate more profit than others. In general business operations with larger and more stable cash flows can sustain higher ratios than smaller and less stable operations. Scale and income stability are important considerations though it is up to the management of a business to monitor costs in an appropriate manner whatever its size. Formula: Total Overhead Cash Expense / Net Revenues
BEARER STOCKS are stocks not registered in the name of an owner, who can thus remain anonymous.
ASSET REVALUATION RESERVE is an accounting concept and represents a reassessment of the value of a capital asset as at a particular date. The reserve is considered a category of the equity of the entity. An asset is originally recorded in the accounts at its cost and depreciated periodically over its estimated useful life as a measure of the amount of the assets value consumed in that period. In practice, the actual useful life of an asset can be miscalculated or an event can cause a change to the useful life. Consequently, assets occasionally need to be revalued in order to reflect a more close approximation to their "worth" in the accounts. When the asset is revalued, the offsetting entry (in a double entry accounting system) would be either made to the profit or loss accounts or to the equity of the entity.
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