OPERATING INCOME is revenue less cost of goods sold and related operating expenses that are applied to the day-to-day operating activities of the company. It excludes financial related items (i.e., interest income, dividend income, and interest expense), extraordinary items, and taxes.
CASH BILL is a documented receipt of cash payment as opposed to an invoice or promise to pay.
INCOME SMOOTHING refers to measures taken to reduce the probability of income shocks before they occur, and includes strategies like diversifying income sources; making low-risk production and employment choices; building up physical, human, and social assets; and ensuring good financial management.
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