OPERATING PROFIT TO SALES is a useful ratio when evaluating value of a firm. It discounts the effect of varying tax rates and benefits to give a more accurate indication of the return associated with the firm. Operating Profit (EBITDA) / Net Revenues.
E&P is Earnings and Profits.
FINANCIAL RISK is the possibility of whether a bond issuer will default, by failing to repay principal and/or interest in a timely manner. Usually bonds issued by the federal government, for the most part, are immune from default (if the government needs money... more is printed). Bonds issued by corporations are more probable to be defaulted on, since companies often go bankrupt. Municipalities occasionally default as well, but it is much less common. Can also be called default risk or credit risk.
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