OPERATIONAL GEARING is the higher the proportion of fixed costs relative to variable operating costs, the higher the operational gearing. This results in greater business risk. A retailer has high fixed costs relative to variable costs, so has a lot of business risk. See GEARING and FINANCIAL GEARING.
TRACEABILITY, COST is where businesses rely on linking or tracing costs to outputs; managerial or cost accounting provides managers this information. Management accountants strive to establish causal relationships between costs and cost objects to determine why costs were incurred. The process of tracing costs to cost objects forges a necessary link so that ultimately costs can be traced to outputs, even if at an aggregated level to their main categories: Direct Costs, Indirect Costs, and General and Administrative Costs.
ROLL FORWARD BUDGET see CONTINUOUS BUDGET.
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