OPTIMAL PRICE is the profit maximizing price. It can be determined through various methods, but generally it is the demand price for the full capacity output of any given product.
COMMERCIAL INVOICE, generally, is the sellers bill of sale for the goods sold, specifying type of goods, quantity and price of each type and terms of sale. In import/export, it represents a complete record of the transaction between exporter and importer with regard to the goods sold. Also reports the content of the shipment and serves as the basis for all other documents about the shipment.
HEDGING is strategy focused upon reducing exposure to risk of loss resulting from fluctuations in exchange rates, commodity prices, interest rates etc. Hedging in securities is taking two positions that will offset each other if prices change, thereby limiting financial risk.
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