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OVER THE COUNTER (OTC) is a U.S. market for securities that are not listed on an exchange. Security orders are transacted via telephone and a computer network that connect dealers. As opposed to the NYSE, which is an auction market, the OTC is a negotiated market. OTC dealers may either act either as principals or as agents for customers. The OTC market is regulated by the NASD.

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PRICE TO EARNINGS RATIO (P/E) is a performance benchmark that can be used as a comparison against other companies or within the stocks own historical performance. For instance, if a stock has historically run at a P/E of 35 and the current P/E is 12, you may want to explore the reasons for the drastic change. If you believe that the ratio is too low, you may want to buy the stock. You will generally find a P/E ratio based on either the prior reporting years earnings, or the earnings of the prior four quarters added together (LTM or Latest Twelve Months). Formula: Stock Price divided by the Earnings Per Share.

BY-PRODUCTS are incidental products resulting from the processing of another product.

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