OVER-BILLING is invoicing in excess of agreed upon pricing or exaggerating the amount of services or goods provided (sometimes illegally).
COST EFFECTIVE is when a judgment is made that something is economical in terms of the goods or services received for the money spent.
DIVIDEND CAPITALIZATION: Since most closely held companies do not pay dividends, when using dividend capitalization valuators must first determine dividend paying capacity of a business. Dividend paying capacity based on average net income and on average cash flow are used. To determine dividend paying capacity, near term capital needs, expansion plans, debt repayment, operation cushion, contractual requirements, past dividend paying history of a business and dividends of a comparable company should be investigated. After analyzing these factors, percent of average net income and of average cash flow that can be used for the payment of dividends can be estimated. What also must be determined is the dividend yield, which can best be determined by analyzing comparable companies. As with the price earnings ratio method, this usually produces a subjective result.
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