PAID IN SURPLUS see PAID-IN-CAPITAL.
SUBLEDGER is for the purpose of organizing revenue and expense transaction for only one account, e.g., For an individual salesperson, like a general ledger, the subledger has different default account types, each from a salespersons perspective, not a company perspective. Thus, Due is due to the salesperson and Payable is payable by the salesperson.
NORMATIVE ACCOUNTING THEORY is where theorists tend to advocate their opinions on accounting based upon subjective opinion, deductive logic, and inductive methods. In the final analysis, nearly all standards are based upon normative theory. Generally conclude that some accounting rule is better or worse than its alternatives. Normative theorists tend to rely heavily upon anecdotal evidence (e.g., examples of fraud) that generally fails to meet tests of academic rigor. For example, the Wizard reported that Montgomery Ward would fail. However, the Wizard always reports that every company will fail or lose its self identity in a pattern of acquisitions and mergers. Eventually, he will always be correct.
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