PAYOUT RATIO is dividends paid divided by company earnings over some period of time, expressed as a percentage.
HASH TOTAL is a control total that has no meaning in itself except for control, e.g., total social security numbers of employees paid.
PRESENT VALUE is the discounted value of a payment or stream of payments to be received in the future, taking into consideration a specific interest or discount rate. Present Value represents a series of future cash flows expressed in todays dollars. A given amount of money is almost always more valuable sooner than later, so present values are generally smaller than corresponding future values.
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