PAYROLL BURDEN, in the U.S., includes the cost of your payroll administration, FICA, FUTA, SUTA, workers' compensation, etc., based on each $100.00 of payroll. For example: $100.00 of payroll earned + 37.56 payroll burden = $137.56 total payroll.
INDUCTIVE ACCOUNTING THEORY (scientific method) assumes accounting standards are somewhat like evolution of a species in nature --- survival of the fittest. It relies heavily upon controlled experimentation (e.g., behavioral accounting research) and statistical testing (e.g., capital markets "events" studies of the impact of accounting information on market prices and volume of transactions).
LIKE KIND, in taxes, refers to property that is similar to another for which it has been exchanged: real estate exchanged for real estate, for instance. The definitions of like kind properties can be found in the US Tax Code at Section 1031.
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