PERPETUAL is a fixed income security with no maturity date, such as a preferred stock with no sinking fund.
TOPSIDE ACCOUNTING ADJUSTMENTS/DEVICES is an illegal practice to where accountants manipulate its accounting practices to close gaps between actual operating results and results reported to the investing public. Accountants then falsely represent to the public that their audits were conducted in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards (GAAS) and that an entitys financial reports fairly represent the entitys financial condition and were prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).
SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS is the analysis of how sensitive outcomes are to changes in the assumptions. The assumptions that deserve the most attention should depend largely on the dominant benefit and cost elements and the areas of greatest uncertainty of the program or process being analyzed.
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