PLEDGE BOND see PLEDGED REVENUES.
VALUE CHAIN is the sequential set of primary and support activities that an enterprise performs to turn inputs into value-added outputs for its external customers. As developed by Michael E. Porter, it is a connected series of organizations, resources, and knowledge streams involved in the creation and delivery of value to end customers. Value systems integrate supply chain activities, from determination of customer needs through product/service development, production/operations and distribution, including (as appropriate) first-, second-, and third-tier suppliers. The objective of value systems is to position organizations in the supply chain to achieve the highest levels of customer satisfaction and value while effectively exploiting the competencies of all organizations in the supply chain.
CASH FLOW PER SHARE is a good measure of a firm's financial strength. Analysts put more weight on cash flow per share than earnings per share because EPS is more easily manipulated, its reliability can at times be questionable. Cash is almost impossible to falsify, i.e. you either have cash or you don't. Cash flow per share is a useful measure for the strength of a firm and the sustainability of its business model. The formula:
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