POSITIVE ACCOUNTING THEORY is where theorists tend to explain why some accounting practices are more popular than others (e.g., because they increase management compensation). They tend to support their conclusions with inductive theory and empirical evidence as opposed to deductive methods. Generally avoid advocacy of one accounting rule as being better or worse than its alternatives. Positivists are inspired by anecdotal evidence, but anecdotal evidence is never permitted without more rigorous and controlled scientific investigation.
CONVEXITY is the price change that occurs for a bond not accounted for or predicted by modified dU1"ation. Convexity explains why price change estimates using modified duration increase in error as the yield changes, generally by more than 100 basis points. Bonds with positive (negative) convexity have increased (decreased) duration as interest rates fall (rise). Bonds with positive convexity, such as those with put options, have returns higher than those predicted by duration alone. Mortgage-backed securities and callable bonds generally have negative convexity, which means that the price increase predicted by duration for a steep rate decline is too high.
RUPIAH is a currency of Indonesia.
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