POSITIVE CONFIRMATION is the positive form of a receivables confirmation asking the customer to respond whether the customer agrees or disagrees with the client's reported receivable balance. The negative form of accounts receivable confirmation asks the client's customer to respond only if the customer disagrees with the balance determined by the client. The negative form is used when controls over receivables are strong and accounts receivable consists of many accounts with small balances. The positive form is used when controls are weak or there are fewer, but larger, accounts.
MAKING A MARKET is securities dealers showing both a bid and an offer for a particular maturity and type of security. This is not to be confused with a quote, which is a general indication of prices rather than a specific price at which a transaction may be executed.
RETURN ON ASSETS (ROA) shows the after tax earnings of assets. Return on assets is an indicator of how profitable a company is. Use this ratio annually to compare a business performance to the industry norms: The higher the ratio the greater the return on assets. However this has to be balanced against such factors as risk, sustainability and reinvestment in the business through development costs.
Higher ROA is better, but extremely high ROA may be an indicator of vulnerability as to any sustainable competitive advantage.
Formula: Earnings After Tax (EAITDA) / Total Assets
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