PRESENT VALUE Definition

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PRESENT VALUE is the discounted value of a payment or stream of payments to be received in the future, taking into consideration a specific interest or discount rate. Present Value represents a series of future cash flows expressed in todays dollars. A given amount of money is almost always more valuable sooner than later, so present values are generally smaller than corresponding future values.

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ACCRUAL ACCOUNTING see ACCRUAL BASIS OF ACCOUNTING.

OPTIONALITY TEST is part of the NAIC security insurer provisional exemption rules: A. Optionality Test: for corporate and municipal issues, principal and interest must be paid in US dollars, contract terms state that principal is repayable in full and the principal repayment schedule is fixed. Further the principal is set at closing, fixed in US dollars and coupon payments cannot be less than zero in any period. B. Optionality Test: for Asset-Backed/Residential Mortgage-Backed securities, the principal and interest must be paid in US dollars, and the coupon payment cannot be less than zero in any payment period. In addition, with the exception for credit enhancements, the timing and amount of cash flows to pay the obligation must depend on the timing and amount of cash flow from the assets underlying the bond. If the bond is prepaid immediately, the insurer must receive at least 98% of the purchase price.

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