PRINCIPAL is: a. a person who has controlling authority (e.g. the CEO or owner of a company) or is in a leading position (part owners of a legal entity) or, b. a matter or thing of primary importance, e.g. is the amount of a loan, excluding interest, or the amount you invest, excluding income.
ACCOUNTING RATIO is the result of dividing one financial statement item by another. Ratios help analysts interpret financial statements by focusing on specific relationships.
TARGET is the goal intended to be attained and which is believed to be attainable, e.g. sales target, margin target, or profit target.
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